Learners and input conditions

Exposure and testing

(In green: groups of learners exposed to Polish input)

Participants: total beginners, adult university students (N=20 per group), 10-year-olds (N=20 per group).

Input: The input for all learner groups had the same thematic content and was provided by the same native speaker of Polish. The amount and the temporal distribution of the input were kept constant. Frequency and transparency of predefined lexical items were controlled. The input was completely monolingual and mainly oral. Pictures and some written words were displayed on a screen. No meta-language, grammar books, or dictionaries were used.

Communication and form-based Input: contained occasional explicit hints to structural regularities.